Kerala, one of the smallest states in the Republic Of India was formed in 1956. It has an area of 15,005 sq. miles, about one percent of the total land area of India. Modern day Kerala was created in 1956 from Malabar, which had been part of the Madra Presidency, and from the two princely states of Travancore and Cochin. The state stretches for about 360 miles along the Malabar coast on the western side of the Indian peninsula; its width varies from 20 to 75 miles. It is bordered by the states of Karnataka on the north, Tamil Nadu to the east and the Arabian sea to the west. The state has 14 districts and the capital is in Thiruvananthapuram. The official language of Kerala is Malayalam. Kerala has a legislative assembly of 140 states. The state sends 29 members to the Indian Parliament – 9 to the Rajya Sabha (Upper House) and 20 to the Lok Sabha (Lower House). The major religions followed in Kerala are Hinduism (58%), Islam (21%), and Christianity (21%). Kerala also has a tiny Jewish population, said to date from 578 BC when they fled the occupation of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar.
In modern times the Keralites have migrated in large numbers in search of employment to several countries in West and Middle Eastern countries as well as to several countries of Africa and West Asia. The professionals of Kerala are among the most wanted experts in the fields of medicine, Information Technology etc. The contribution by the Malayali Diaspora to the Kerala economy is immense and even the commentators called it as a money order economy. Manchester Malayali Association attempts to coordinate the interests of malayalis in Manchester and bridge the activities of various malayali organisations in UK, Europe and Other parts of the World.
The name Keralam in Sanskrit means the land added on. But the popular version is that it means the land of Kera, the Coconut. The most popular legend would have it that the land crust that forms the State was raised from the depths of the ocean. People have lived in the region now known as Kerala since ancient times. Regional identity developed in the 14th century with the development of the Malayalam language.Vasco da Gama’s voyage to Kerala from Portugal in 1498 was largely motivated by Portuguese determination to break the Kerala Muslim’s ' control over the trade between local spice producers and the Middle East. He established India's first Portuguese fortress at Cochin (Kochi) in 1503 and from there, taking advantage of rivalry existing between the royal families of Calicut and Cochin, managed to destroy the monopoly.
The dispute between Calicut and Cochin, however, provided an opportunity for the Dutch to come in and finally expel the Portuguese from their forts. The British moved into the area in the form of the British East India Company and were firmly established in Kerala by the beginning of the seventeenth century. Tipu Sultan attempted to encroach on British-held territory in 1792, but he was defeated and the British remained in control until independence. The Portuguese were surprised to discover, when they arrived in Kerala in 1498, that Christianity was already established. The history of Christianity in Kerala dates back to the arrival of St. Thomas Apostle at Kodungallur in A.D. 52. A Christian-Jewish community was founded by a contingent of Syriac-Nasranis who arrived in 192 via Baghdad. The ancient Syrian-christians lived alongside the Cochin Jews.
Kerala’s culture is also a composite and cosmopolitan one and to which several people and races have made their significant contributions. Isolated from the deccan plateau by the mountainous belt of the Western Ghats, but with a long coastline open to foreign influences, Kerala has evolved a unique culture. The gradual evolution of composite and cosmopolitan culture led to the emergence of a spirit of tolerance and religious amity. It is an educationally advanced nd politically conscious state with its own language, Malayalam, and has the highest rate of literacy among Indian states. Its history unfolds the romantic and fascinating story of a unique process of cultural synthesis and social assimilation.
The culture of Kerala has persisted through the ages precisely for the reasons of antiquity, unity, continuity and universality of its nature. In its widest sense it embraces the highest achievements of the human spirit in every sphere of life. Thus, in its totality, it represents the quintessence of the collective achievements of a people in the fields of religion and philosophy, language and literature, art and architecture, education and learning and economic and social organisation. In fact, all through its history the genius of Kerala has blossomed forth in all its vigour and vitality and has helped its people to reach the peak of excellence in all their endeavours, particularly for women.
Kerala is a land of great natural beauty. From the majestic heights of the Western Ghats the country undulates westward presenting a vista of silent valleys clothed in the richest green. Among the many rivers that glide across the plains to merge their waters with the Arabian sea, the more important are the Periyar, the Pamba and the Bharatha Puzha. Along the coast, sand dunes shelter a linked chain of lagoons and backwaters the still waters of which are studded with sea-gulls and country canoes plying at a snails pace. The temperature normally ranges from 80 to 90 F in the plains but drops to about 70 F in the highlands. The state gets its due share of both the southwest as well as the northeast monsoons, and the rainfull is heavy, averaging around 118 inches annually. With the Arabian Sea in the west, the Western Ghats towering 500-2700 m in the east and networked by forty four rivers, Kerala enjoys unique geographical features that have made it one of the most sought after tourist destinations in Asia.
In Kerala, the high lands slope down from the Western Ghats which rise to an average height of 900 m with a number of peaks all over 1,800m in height. This is area of major plantations like tea, coffee, rubber, cardamom and other spices. The midland lying, between the mountains and low lands, is made up undulating hills and valleys. This is an area of intensive cultivation and the major crops are cashew, coconut, areca nuts, tapioca, banana, rice, ginger, pepper, sugarcane and vegetables. The low lands, mainly the coastal area which is made up of the river deltas, backwaters and the shore of the Arabian sea, is essentially a land of coconuts and rice. Fisheries and coir industry also constitute the major industries of this area.
Kerala- An Unique Case of Development
The development model initiated in Kerala shows that people can make their lives better in the absence of industrialization or large-scale economic growth. Kerala ranks highest in India with respect to "social development parameters" such as primary education and healthcare. Literacy in Kerala, at higher than 90 per cent, and more than double that of the country. It is significant that Kerala is almost on a par with the most advanced countries of the world in point of literacy. Despite low per capita incomes, Kerala also have achieved long life expectancy, low infant mortality and birth rates and high access to medical care. Kerala's development indicators compare favorably with the rest of India, low-income countries in general and even rich nations such as the United States. The other main aspects of the Kerala’s development strategy are effective public food distribution that provides subsidized rice to low-income households; land reform initiative that abolished tenancy and landlord exploitation; and a high rate of government employment for members of formerly low-caste communities. Kerala continues to be the only Indian state with no major statistical evidence of excess female mortality - a sign that female children in Kerala have equal life chances to those of males.
Manchester –An introduction
Manchester is one of Britain's largest metropolitan conurbations, set in the old county of Lancashire, on the west side of the Pennine Hills, which form the backbone of the country. It was here that the Industrial Revolution was born through the enterprise, industry and early development of its merchant skills. The county still produces more than half of Britain's manufactured goods and consumables.
Manchester has been inhabited for more than 2000 years, since the then future Roman Emperor Agricola built a fort just north of the site of present day Manchester, though it was not until the 18th century that this hitherto remote and inconspicuous little town sprang into the forefront of world attention by being the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution.
The city of Manchester and innumerable small towns and villages surrounding it saw the rapid growth of factories manufacturing merchandise for the cotton weaving and spinning for the textile industry, and became the prime region for this industry until its decline in the 1950s, when cheaper foreign imports sounded the death knell for the region's pre-eminence. In Manchester, 2.6 million people live within its actual boundaries, and, 7 million others live in the wider region, making it second only to London in Great Britain.
The inner city district of Manchester is a multicultural centre with a significant ethnic minority comprising 12.6 per cent of the district population. The largest group is Pakistani (3.8%). Sizeable Pakistani populations are also to be found in the neighboring districts of Oldham (4.1%) and Rochdale (5.5%). A large Indian population (5.2%) lives in neighboring Bolton. Significantly, one in eight of all Pakistanis and one in twelve of all Bangladeshis in Britain reside in Greater Manchester. This cultural diversity is expected to increase over time, given existing trends.
Constitution and Policies of Manchester Malayalee Association
Kerala At A Glance
|Location||Southwestern tip of India.|
|Area||38, 863 sq km.|
|Language||Malayalam;English is widely spoken.|
|Religion||Hinduism, Christianity, Islam|
|Summer||February - May (24 - 330C)|
|Monsoon||June - September (22 - 280C)|
|Winter||October - January (22 - 320C)|
|Major Cities||Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi and Kozhikode|
Names of DistrictsThiruvananthapuram
|Population||31.839 Millions as per the latest 2001 Census|
|Density of Population||819 per sq kms|
|Kerala's Share in the National Population||3.1 per cent|
|District Average||2.274 millions|
|Sex Ratio||1058 women for 1000 men|
|Literacy Rate||90.92 per cent|
|Male Literacy Rate||94.20 per cent|
|Female Literacy Rate||87.86 per cent|
|Lower Primary Schools (First - Fourth classes)||6712|
|Upper Primary Schools (Fifth - Seventh classes)||2951|
|High Schools (Eighth - Tenth classes)||2608|
|Total number of Schools||12271|
|Higher Education Universities||7|
|Arts and Science Colleges||286|
Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI)
Kerala has had a commendable record in terms of the Physical Quality of Life Index. Indicators of PQLI like infant mortality (11%), female literacy (87.86%), and life expectancy at birth for males (68.23) and females (73.62), are well above all India levels. The major reason for this achievement is Kerala's focus on the service sector. About 37 per cent of the total annual expenditure of the State is earmarked for health and education. Another reason for this is the existence of a larger network of hospital infrastructure under the Directorate of Health Services with 933 primary health centres and 5094 sub centres
Health Care Infrastructure
Immunisation has been near total in 2002 - 03
|T.T for Pregnant Women||86.1%|
|T.T for 5 year old||89.2%|
|T.T for 10 year old||98.1%|
|T.T for 16 year old||95%|
Rate of Diseases per 1000 People
There are three international airports in the state. They are at Thiruvananthapuram, Kozhikode and Nedumbassery operates international flights and domestic flights. The state is well connected by rail and road.
|Seaports||Major : Kochi , Minor : Beypore (Kozhikode), Alappuzha, Kollam|
|Major Beaches||Kovalam, Varkala, Fort Kochi, Kappad and Bekal|
|Major Wild Life Sanctuaries||Thekkady (Periyar), Parambikkulam, Wayanad, Silent Valley, Aralm, Peechi-Vazhani, Chimani, Shenduruny, Idukki, Chinnar, Peppara, Neyyar.|
|Bird Sanctuary||Thattekady, Kumarakom|
|Major Hill Stations||Ponmudi, Peerumade, Thekkady, Munnar and Wayanad|
|Farm / Cash Crops||Rubber, Coffee, Tea, Spices, Pepper, Cashew, Coconut, Arecanut and rice|
|Exports||Marine, Coir, Handicrafts, Spices, Food and other Products|
|Industries||Tourism, Information Technology, Fertilizer, Oil Refining and Power Generation, Ship Buildings, Machine Tools, Electronics, Cables, Rubber.|